Home World Food Cooking Ingredient Substitutions – Conversions, Charts, & More

Cooking Ingredient Substitutions – Conversions, Charts, & More

Substituting ingredients is a great way to save money and make your cooking more sustainable. This guide includes substitution charts for common ingredients, as well as conversion charts for metric measurements.

The baking substitutions chart is a great resource for people who are looking to make substitutions in their baking recipes. It includes conversions, charts, and more.

Know your ingredients Featured image

Knowing What’s in Your Food

In America, it seems that there were two types of homes, according to the time machine. Those who used Betty Crocker cookbooks, which came in the famous red check binder, and those who used The Joy of Cooking, which came in a blue cover with stripes. Both have their own merits, but Joy’s included a section called “Know Your Ingredients.”

Betty Crocker cookbook and The Joy of Cooking

What should a chef do if they don’t have baking powder or bittersweet chocolate on hand? These questions were addressed, as well as how to prepare a squirrel for cooking, how to lard a roast, and other noteworthy information such as where the beef or pig slices originated on the animal. In a nutshell, the amount and range of knowledge it provided was encyclopedic.

Snippets of Importance

woman adding oil in pan

It’s all too easy to start a dish and realize you’re missing one little item that’s also critical to the recipe’s success. We’ve compiled a list of the most frequent missing items we’ve come across in the kitchen, along with the most straightforward substitute. Our aim is for you to have something similar to the replacement item on hand. While we don’t have the full encyclopedia available, these bits will keep you busy.

Some things aren’t as simple as a straight line replacement that results in the identical characteristics. 12 cup cooking oil for baking, for example, as given below. It’s often used as a moistening agent in quick breads and other baked goods. The suggested replacement, applesauce, will achieve the objective of retaining moisture. To prevent sticking, you’ll need to fill in the blanks with common sense and compensate by oiling the pan, for example.

Table of Common Kitchen Substitutions

powdered sugar 1 tea spoon 14 teaspoon cream of tartar + 34 teaspoon baking soda
Soda (baking) 1 Tablespoon 1 Tablespoon potassium bicarbonate and 14 teaspoon salt, or three teaspoons baking powder
Brown sugar is a kind of sugar that is used 1 cup 1 tablespoon of oil of oil molasses, plus 1 cup granulated sugar
salted butter 1 cup 7/8 cup vegetable oil + 12 teaspoon salt, or 1 cup shortening plus 12 teaspoon salt
Sour milk or buttermilk 1 cup 1 cup milk + 1 tablespoon lemon juice or vinegar, set aside for 10 minutes
unsweetened chocolate 1 ounce 1 tablespoon butter plus 3 tablespoons cocoa
thick cream 1 cup for non-whipping recipes a third of a gallon of milk + a third of a gallon of melted butter
light cream 1 cup 3 teaspoons melted butter plus 78% cup milk
sour cream, cream 1 cup 3 teaspoons melted butter plus 78% cup plain yogurt
Egg 1 whole medium For baking, use 3 tablespoons vegetable oil with 1 tablespoon water, or 3 teaspoons mayonnaise for cakes.
Self-rising flour 1 cup 1 cup all-purpose flour + 112 teaspoons baking powder + 14 teaspoon salt
Flour is used as a thickening. 1 tablespoon 1 Tablespoon arrowroot powder or corn starch
Dried herbs 12 tsp. to 1 tsp. 1 tablespoon fresh herbs, minced
Honey 1 cup 1 cup genuine maple syrup + 114 cup sugar plus 12 cup liquid specified for in the recipe, such as milk or water
juice of a lemon 1 Tablespoon a third of a teaspoon of white vinegar
grated lemon rind 1 Tablespoon 12 tsp genuine lemon essence
Mayonnaise 1 cup 1 cup sour cream or cottage cheese purée
entire milk 1 cup 34 cup 2% milk + 14 cup half-and-half
Molasses 1 cup 1 cup dark corn syrup or honey (B grade)
dry mustard 1 teaspoon 12 teaspoon liquid from the recipe, 1 tablespoon prepared mustard
For baking, use oil. ½ cup 12 cup applesauce for moistening baked pastries
Granulated sugar 1 cup 134 cup sugar (confectioners’) Baked products will be less crisp as a result of this.
condensed milk with added sugar 1 is capable of (14 oz.) 114 cup granulated sugar + 1 cup evaporated milk If the recipe does not call for it, warm the milk and dissolve the sugar in it.
a bean of vanilla a one-inch bean 1 teaspoon vanilla extract, or double the quantity of vanilla in the recipe if using whiskey or rum instead.
Vinegar 1 teaspoon 2 teaspoons white wine or 1 teaspoon lemon juice
balsamic vinegar 1 tablespoon 1 teaspoon sugar and 1 tablespoon red wine vinegar
Wine 1 cup 2 tablespoons vinegar and 1 cup mixed fruit juice

The Old Farmer’s Almanac | Ingredient Substitutions Chart


Man adding flour in bowl

When it comes to replacing, the notion of measuring and occasionally doubling recipes comes to mind. These are weighted volume measures, not weighted weighted weighted weighted weighted weighted Do you really want to measure out 12 tea spoons if a recipe asks for 3 Tablespoons and you’re preparing for a party and will multiply by a factor of four? Is it simpler to remember that a Tablespoon is 12 ounces, which implies you’ll need 6 ounces, or 34% of a cup, for this example?

Let’s not even get started on teaspoons. Okay, let’s get this party started. 2 teaspoons plus a scant teaspoon equals one teaspoon, as the old saying goes. 7/8 or thereabouts has a hazy meaning. In modern times, a straight line conversion of 3:1 teaspoons to Tablespoons is used.


When reading recipes, a lowercase ‘t’ stands for one teaspoon, and an uppercase ‘T’ stands for one Tablespoon.

Equivalent Chart for Measuring

3 teaspoons 1 teaspoon =    
1 Tablespoon = ½ ounce    
2 Tablespoons = 1 ounce =1/8 cup  
16 teaspoons = eight ounces =1 cup  
2 cups equals 16 ounces = 1 pint  
2 pints equals 32 ounces = 1 quart  
2 quarts equals 64 ounces ≈ a gallon and a half  
8 pints 128 oz. = 128 oz. = four pints 1 gallon =

The 10 common cooking substitutions are a list of things that you can substitute for the ingredients in your favorite recipes.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the substitution equivalent of the following ingredients?


What is a substitution chart?

A substitution chart is a list of words and phrases that can be substituted for each other in a sentence.

What are the substitute of the common ingredients in cooking?

The substitute of the common ingredients in cooking are spices, herbs, and salt.

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